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    Mapping closed and open innovation practices: a comparison across nine countries based on micro-level innovation survey data

    Frenz, Marion and Lambert, Ray (2008) Mapping closed and open innovation practices: a comparison across nine countries based on micro-level innovation survey data. Working Paper. Dynamics of Institutions of Markets in Europe.

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    Abstract

    This paper sets about identifying different and complex innovation practices across nine countries by exploring data from firm level innovation surveys conducted in nine countries: Austria, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, France, New Zealand, Norway, South Korea and the United Kingdom. Our results suggest that innovating firms in these countries adopt one or more of the following innovation modes: (i) ‘new-to-market innovating’, (ii) ‘marketing based imitating’, (iii) ‘process modernising’, (iv) ‘wider innovating’. The extent to which IPRs, external technology, design or marketing activities play a role in these innovation practices varies across countries. For example, in Austria, Denmark and New Zealand diffused technology (externally acquired R&D) is used together with own technology in bringing about novel products, suggesting a more open innovation pattern. In contrast, among firms in France, New Zealand and the UK we identify a greater reliance on IPRs (e.g. patents, copyrights and design registrations) while at the same time omitting externally acquired technologies. The latter may be interpreted as leaning towards a closed approach to innovation among a group of firms.

    Metadata

    Item Type: Monograph (Working Paper)
    Additional Information: JEL classification: O12; O57; O32
    School: Birkbeck Schools and Departments > School of Business, Economics & Informatics > Management
    Research Centre: Innovation Management Research, Birkbeck Centre for
    Depositing User: Sarah Hall
    Date Deposited: 11 Sep 2014 15:39
    Last Modified: 06 Dec 2016 10:08
    URI: http://eprints.bbk.ac.uk/id/eprint/10509

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