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    First recorded eruption of Nabro volcano, Eritrea, 2011

    Goitom, B. and Oppenheimer, C. and Hammond, James O.S. and Grandin, R. and Barnie, T. and Donovan, A. and Ogubazghi, G. and Yohannes, E. and Kibrom, G. and Kendall, J.-M. and Carn, S.A. and Fee, D. and Sealing, C. and Keir, D. and Ayele, A. and Blundy, J. and Hamlyn, J. and Wright, T. and Berhe, S. (2015) First recorded eruption of Nabro volcano, Eritrea, 2011. Bulletin of Volcanology 77 (10), ISSN 0258-8900.

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    Abstract

    We present a synthesis of diverse observations of the first recorded eruption of Nabro volcano, Eritrea, which began on 12 June 2011. While no monitoring of the volcano was in effect at the time, it has been possible to reconstruct the nature and evolution of the eruption through analysis of re- gional seismological and infrasound data and satellite remote sensing data, supplemented by petrological analysis of erupted products and brief field surveys. The event is notable for the comparative rarity of recorded historical eruptions in the region and of caldera systems in general, for the prodi- gious quantity of SO2 emitted into the atmosphere and the significant human impacts that ensued notwithstanding the low population density of the Afar region. It is also relevant in understanding the broader magmatic and tectonic signifi- cance of the volcanic massif of which Nabro forms a part and which strikes obliquely to the principal rifting directions in the Red Sea and northern Afar. The whole-rock compositions of Editorial responsibility: G. Giordano the erupted lavas and tephra range from trachybasaltic to trachybasaltic andesite, and crystal-hosted melt inclusions contain up to 3,000 ppm of sulphur by weight. The eruption was preceded by significant seismicity, detected by regional networks of sensors and accompanied by sustained tremor. Substantial infrasound was recorded at distances of hundreds to thousands of kilometres from the vent, beginning at the onset of the eruption and continuing for weeks. Analysis of ground deformation suggests the eruption was fed by a shal- low, NW–SE-trending dike, which is consistent with field and satellite observations of vent distributions. Despite lack of prior planning and preparedness for volcanic events in the country, rapid coordination of the emergency response miti- gated the human costs of the eruption.

    Metadata

    Item Type: Article
    Keyword(s) / Subject(s): Nabro, InSAR, Seismicity, Afar, Danakil, Volcano monitoring, Satellite, remote sensing
    School: Birkbeck Schools and Departments > School of Science > Earth and Planetary Sciences
    Depositing User: James Hammond
    Date Deposited: 10 Nov 2015 16:40
    Last Modified: 31 Jul 2019 16:07
    URI: http://eprints.bbk.ac.uk/id/eprint/13392

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