Competitive formation of cis and trans derivatives in the nucleophilic substitution reactions of cyclophosphazenes having a mono-spiro P-NHR group
Beşli, S. and Coles, Simon J. and Davies, David B. and Kiliç, A. and Okutan, E. and Shaw, Robert A. and Ecik, E.T. and Çiftçi, G.Y. (2011) Competitive formation of cis and trans derivatives in the nucleophilic substitution reactions of cyclophosphazenes having a mono-spiro P-NHR group. Dalton Transactions 40 (18), pp. 4959-4969. ISSN 1477-9226.
Nucleophilic substitution reactions of N3P3Cl4[NH(CH2)(3)NMe] (1) and N3P3Cl4[NH(CH2)(3)O] (2) with mono-functional alcohols (methanol, 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, phenol) and a secondary amine (pyrrolidine) were used to investigate the relationship between the incoming nucleophile and the proportions of products with substituents that are cis or trans to the spiro NH moiety. The reaction products were characterized by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, H-1 and P-31 NMR spectroscopy and the configurational isomers by X-ray crystallography. Six products have been characterised with the substituent cis to the spiro NH group for the alcohol (methanol, phenol) and pyrrolidine derivatives of both compounds 1 and 2, compared to just one derivative with the substituent trans to the spiro NH group, that for the pyrrolidine derivative of compound 2. For each reaction the relative proportions of cis and trans isomers were determined by P-31 NMR measurements of the reaction mixtures. It was found that the reactions of compound 1 with all three alcohols and of compound 2 with methanol lead to exclusive formation of isomers with the substituent cis to the NH moiety, whereas all other reactions lead to mixtures of cis and trans isomers in different ratios under standard reaction conditions. However, when crown ether is included in the reaction medium for the reactions of compound 2 with both 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol and phenol, it is found that only cis isomers are formed. All these results are rationalised in terms of the competition between at least two effects; the cis-directing effect by hydrogen bonding of the incoming nucleophile to the spiro N-H group already present on the cyclophophazene ring and the cis-directing effect of the sodium cation coordinating to the oxygen lone pairs of the P-O moiety of the spiro ring.
|School:||Birkbeck Schools and Departments > School of Science > Biological Sciences|
|Date Deposited:||27 Jun 2011 12:50|
|Last Modified:||17 Apr 2013 12:20|
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