Regularities and mechanism of formation of the mantle lithosphere structure beneath the Siberian Craton in comparison with other cratons
Ashchepkov, I.V. and Vladykin, N.V. and Ntaflos, T. and Downes, Hilary and Mitchel, R. and Smelov, A.P. and Alymova, N.V. and Kostrovitsky, S.I. and Rotman, A.Y. and Smarov, G.P. and Makovchuk, I.V. and Stegnitsky, Y.B. and Nigmatulina, E.N. and Khmelnikova, O.S. (2013) Regularities and mechanism of formation of the mantle lithosphere structure beneath the Siberian Craton in comparison with other cratons. Gondwana Research 23 (1), pp. 4-24. ISSN 1342-937X.
Regularities of the mantle structure beneath the Siberian craton were determined using the monomineral thermobarometry and common Opx- Gar methods. Samples were taken from 80 pipes from the Siberian Craton and in comparison 70 pipes from worldwide kimberlites. The largest pipes contain several dunite layers in the lower part of lithospheric mantle which are responsible for the diamond grade. The lithospheric mantle consists of two major parts divided at a depth of 4.0 GPa by a pyroxenite layer. Major intervals determined for the mantle beneath Udachnaya and Mir are: 1) 8.0-6.5 GPa harzburgites, eclogites and dunitic veins; 2) 6.5-5.5 GPa sheared peridotites, low-Cr pyroxenites, dunites; 3)in 5.5-4.0 GPa interval there are 4–6 layers of harzburgitic paleoslabs; 4) 4.0-3.5 GPa the pyroxenites lens; 5) upper layered Sp-Gar peridotite sequence including a trap of basaltic and other silicate melt cumulates at 3.0-2.0 GPa. The lithospheric mantle beneath seven different tectonic terrains in Siberia is characterized by TRE geochemistry and major elements of peridotitic clinopyroxenes. The mantle in Magan terrain contains more fertile peridotites in the South (Mir pipe) then in North (Alakit) which were metasomatized by subduction-related melts producing Phl and Cpx about 500–800 Ma ago. Daldyn terrain is essentially harzburgitic in the west part (abyssal peridotite) but in the east in Upper Muna (East Daldyn terrain) the mantle is more differentiated and in general more oxidized. The Markha terrain (Nakyn) contains depleted but partly refertilized harzburgites, subducted pelitic material and abundant eclogites. Circum-Anabar mantle is ultradepleted in the lower part but in the upper regions it has been fertilized by fluid-rich melts very enriched in incompatible elements. The – P- Fe# diagrams (and other components) reveal different structure of mantle columns in each terrain. They are subvertical for the mantle sampled by Devonian pipes. Beneath Mesozoic pipes the mantle has been affected by melt percolation caused by the Siberian Superplume which created continuous Fe-enrichment in the upper part. The models of continent growth and evolution are briefly discussed. In general the geothermal regime and mantle heating is negatively correlated with the thickness of lithosphere. The sheared peridotites under Udachnaya and other kimberlite pipe are likely to have formed after the intrusion of protokimberlite volatile rich (hydrous) melts and hydraulic fracturing. This mechanism is responsible for the origin of asthenospheric lenses. Progressive melting especially in the pervasive zones may be responsible for the creation of 34 upper asthenospheric lens near 4.0 GPa which may be accompanied by mantle diapirism. Such a lens is the trap for the kimberlites in Siberia in Mesozoic time and in rifted intracontinental areas and margins.
|Keyword(s) / Subject(s):||Mantle, Siberian craton, terrains, lithosphere, layering, monomineral thermobarometry, garnet, clinopyroxenes, chromite, ilmenite, trace, elements|
|School:||Birkbeck Schools and Departments > School of Science > Earth and Planetary Sciences|
|Date Deposited:||16 Apr 2012 08:45|
|Last Modified:||11 Oct 2016 11:59|
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