Ronald, Angelica and Pennell, C.E. and Whitehouse, A.J.O. (2011) Prenatal maternal stress associated with ADHD and autistic traits in early childhood. Frontiers in Psychology 1 (223), ISSN 1664-1078.
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Research suggests that offspring of mothers who experience high levels of stress during pregnancy are more likely to have problems in neurobehavioral development. There is preliminary evidence that prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) is a risk factor for both autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), however most studies do not control for confounding factors and no study has investigated PNMS as a risk factor for behaviors characteristic of these disorders in early childhood. A population cohort of 2900 pregnant women were recruited before their 18th week of pregnancy and investigated prospectively. Maternal experience of stressful life events was assessed during pregnancy. When offspring were age 2 years, mothers completed the child behavior checklist. Multiple regression showed that maternal stressful events during pregnancy significantly predicted ADHD behaviors in offspring, after controlling for autistic traits and other confounding variables, in both males (p = 0.03) and females (p = 0.01). Similarly, stressful events during pregnancy significantly predicted autistic traits in the offspring after controlling for ADHD behaviors and confounding variables, in males only (p = 0.04). In conclusion, this study suggests that PNMS, in the form of typical stressful life events such as divorce or a residential move, show a small but significant association with both autistic traits and ADHD behaviors independently, in offspring at age 2 years, after controlling for multiple antenatal, obstetric, postnatal, and sociodemographic covariates. This finding supports future research using epigenetic, cross-fostering, and gene–environment interaction designs to identify the causal processes underlying this association.
|Additional Information:||This Document is Protected by copyright and was first published by Frontiers. All rights reserved. it is reproduced with permission.|
|Keyword(s) / Subject(s):||prenatal, stress, ADHD, autism, autistic traits, Raine Study|
|School or Research Centre:||Birkbeck Schools and Research Centres > School of Science > Psychological Sciences|
|Depositing User:||Sarah Hall|
|Date Deposited:||16 May 2012 11:04|
|Last Modified:||17 Apr 2013 12:33|
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