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    α1-Antitrypsin deficiency, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the serpinopathies

    Ekeowa, U.I. and Gooptu, Bibek and Belorgey, D. and Hägglöf, P. and Karlsson‑Li, S. and Miranda, E. and Pérez, J. and MacLeod, I. and Kroger, H. and Marciniak, S.J. and Crowther, D.C. and Lomas, D.A. (2009) α1-Antitrypsin deficiency, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the serpinopathies. Clinical Science 116 (12), pp. 837-850. ISSN 0143-5221.

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    Abstract

    α1-Antitrypsin is the prototypical member of the serine proteinase inhibitor or serpin superfamily of proteins. The family includes α1-antichymotrypsin, C1 inhibitor, antithrombin and neuroserpin, which are all linked by a common molecular structure and the same suicidal mechanism for inhibiting their target enzymes. Point mutations result in an aberrant conformational transition and the formation of polymers that are retained within the cell of synthesis. The intracellular accumulation of polymers of mutant α1-antitrypsin and neuroserpin results in a toxic gain-of-function phenotype associated with cirrhosis and dementia respectively. The lack of important inhibitors results in overactivity of proteolytic cascades and diseases such as COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) (α1-antitrypsin and α1-antichymotrypsin), thrombosis (antithrombin) and angio-oedema (C1 inhibitor). We have grouped these conditions that share the same underlying disease mechanism together as the serpinopathies. In the present review, the molecular and pathophysiological basis of α1-antitrypsin deficiency and other serpinopathies are considered, and we show how understanding this unusual mechanism of disease has resulted in the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

    Metadata

    Item Type: Article
    School: Birkbeck Schools and Departments > School of Science > Biological Sciences
    Research Centre: Structural Molecular Biology, Institute of (ISMB)
    Depositing User: Administrator
    Date Deposited: 24 Jun 2015 15:00
    Last Modified: 06 Dec 2016 10:42
    URI: http://eprints.bbk.ac.uk/id/eprint/12433

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