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    Volumetric budget and grain-size fractionation of a geological sediment routing system: Eocene Escanilla Formation, south-central Pyrenees

    Michael, N.A. and Whittaker, A.C. and Carter, Andrew and Allen, P.A. (2014) Volumetric budget and grain-size fractionation of a geological sediment routing system: Eocene Escanilla Formation, south-central Pyrenees. Geological Society of America Bulletin 126 (3-4), pp. 585-599. ISSN 0016-7606.

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    Abstract

    The supply of sediment and its characteristic grain-size mix are key controls on depositional facies and stratigraphic architectures in sedimentary basins. Consequently, constraints on sediment caliber, budgets, and fluxes are a prerequisite for effective stratigraphic prediction. Here, we investigate a mid- to late Eocene (41.6–33.9 Ma) sediment routing system in the Spanish Pyrenees. We derive a full volumetric sediment budget, weighted for grain-size fractions, partitioned between terrestrial and marine depositional sectors, and we quantify sediment fluxes between depocenters. The paleo–sediment routing system was controlled by syndepositional thrust tectonics and consisted of two major feeder systems eroding the high Pyrenees that supplied a river system draining parallel to the regional tectonic strike and that ultimately exported sediment to coastal, shallow- marine and deep-marine depo centers. We show significant changes in both the volume and grain-size distribution of sediment eroded from the Pyrenean mountain belt during three different time intervals in the mid- to late Eocene, which controlled the characteristics of stratigraphy preserved in a series of wedge-top basins The time-averaged sediment discharge from source areas increased from ~250 km3/m.y. to 700 km3/m.y. over the 7.7 m.y. interval investigated. This temporal increase in sediment supply caused major westward progradation of facies belts and led to substantial sediment bypass through the terrestrial routing system to the (initially) marine Jaca Basin. The grain-size mix, measured as size fractions of gravel, sand, and fi ner than sand, also changed over the three time intervals intervals. Integration of volumetric and grain-size information from source to sink provides an estimate of the long-term grain-size distribution of the sediment supply, comprising 9% gravel, 24% sand, and 67% finer than sand. The techniques and concepts used in the Escanilla study can profitably be applied to paleo–sediment routing systems in other tectonic and climatic settings and to catchments with a range of bedrock lithology and vegetation. This will promote a better generic understanding of the dynamics of source-to sink systems and provide a powerful tool for forward stratigraphic modeling. The sediment routing system approach has the potential to contribute strongly to new models of sequence stratigraphy.

    Metadata

    Item Type: Article
    School: Birkbeck Schools and Departments > School of Science > Earth and Planetary Sciences
    Depositing User: Andy Carter
    Date Deposited: 12 Feb 2016 14:40
    Last Modified: 28 Jul 2019 08:19
    URI: http://eprints.bbk.ac.uk/id/eprint/14196

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