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    Multiple-Strain Infections of Human Cytomegalovirus with High Genomic Diversity are Common In Breast Milk from HIV-Positive Women in Zambia

    Suárez, N.M. and Musonda, K.G. and Escriva, Eric and Njenga, M. and Agbueze, Anthony and Camiolo, S. and Davison, A.J. and Gompels, U.A. (2019) Multiple-Strain Infections of Human Cytomegalovirus with High Genomic Diversity are Common In Breast Milk from HIV-Positive Women in Zambia. The Journal of Infectious Diseases , ISSN 1537-6613.

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    Abstract

    Background In developed countries, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major pathogen in congenitally infected and immunocompromised individuals, where multiple-strain infection appears linked to disease severity. The situation is less documented in developing countries. In Zambia, breast milk is a key route for transmitting HCMV and carries higher viral loads in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected women. We investigated HCMV strain diversity. Methods High-throughput sequence datasets were generated from 28 HCMV-positive breast milk samples donated by 22 mothers (15 HIV-infected and 7 HIV-negative) at 4–16 weeks postpartum, then analyzed by genome assembly and novel motif-based genotyping in 12 hypervariable HCMV genes. Results Among the 20 samples from 14 donors (13 HIV-infected and one HIV-negative) who yielded data meeting quality thresholds, 89 of the possible 109 genotypes were detected, and multiple-strain infections involving up to 5 strains per person were apparent in 9 HIV-infected women. Strain diversity was extensive among individuals but conserved compartmentally and longitudinally within them. Genotypic linkage was maintained within hypervariable UL73/UL74 and RL12/RL13/UL1 loci for virus entry and immunomodulation, but not between genes more distant from each other. Conclusions Breast milk from HIV-infected women contains multiple HCMV strains of high genotypic complexity and thus constitutes a major source for transmitting viral diversity.

    Metadata

    Item Type: Article
    Keyword(s) / Subject(s): Immunology and Allergy, Infectious Diseases
    School: Birkbeck Schools and Departments > School of Science > Biological Sciences
    SWORD Depositor: Mr Joe Tenant
    Depositing User: Mr Joe Tenant
    Date Deposited: 28 Jun 2019 08:24
    Last Modified: 28 Jul 2019 23:31
    URI: http://eprints.bbk.ac.uk/id/eprint/27473

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