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    Miocene to Holocene exhumation of metamorphic crustal wedges in the NW Himalaya: evidence for tectonic extrusion coupled to fluvial erosion

    Vannay, J.C. and Grasemann, B. and Rahn, M. and Carter, Andrew and Baudraz, V. and Cosca, M. (2004) Miocene to Holocene exhumation of metamorphic crustal wedges in the NW Himalaya: evidence for tectonic extrusion coupled to fluvial erosion. Tectonics 23 (1), pp. 1014-1029. ISSN 0278-7407.

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    Abstract

    [1] The Himalayan crystalline core zone exposed along the Sutlej Valley (India) is composed of two high‐grade metamorphic gneiss sheets that were successively underthrusted and tectonically extruded, as a consequence of the foreland‐directed propagation of crustal deformation in the Indian plate margin. The High Himalayan Crystalline Sequence (HHCS) is composed of amphibolite facies to migmatitic paragneisses, metamorphosed at temperatures up to 750°C at 30 km depth between Eocene and early Miocene. During early Miocene, combined thrusting along the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and extension along the Sangla Detachment induced the rapid exhumation and cooling of the HHCS, whereas exhumation was mainly controlled by erosion since middle Miocene. The Lesser Himalayan Crystalline Sequence (LHCS) is composed of amphibolite facies para‐ and orthogneisses, metamorphosed at temperatures up to 700°C during underthrusting down to 30 km depth beneath the MCT. The LHCS cooled very rapidly since late Miocene, as a consequence of exhumation controlled by thrusting along the Munsiari Thrust and extension in the MCT hanging wall. This renewed phase of tectonic extrusion at the Himalayan front is still active, as indicated by the present‐day regional seismicity, and by hydrothermal circulation linked to elevated near‐surface geothermal gradients in the LHCS. As recently evidenced in the Himalayan syntaxes, active exhumation of deep crustal rocks along the Sutlej Valley is spatially correlated with the high erosional potential of this major trans‐Himalayan river. This correlation supports the emerging view of a positive feedback during continental collision between crustal‐scale tectono‐thermal reworking and efficient erosion along major river systems.

    Metadata

    Item Type: Article
    School: Birkbeck Schools and Departments > School of Science > Earth and Planetary Sciences
    Depositing User: Sarah Hall
    Date Deposited: 16 Jul 2019 15:23
    Last Modified: 28 Jul 2019 11:08
    URI: http://eprints.bbk.ac.uk/id/eprint/28148

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