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    Towards an integrated scientific and social case for human space exploration

    Crawford, Ian (2004) Towards an integrated scientific and social case for human space exploration. Earth, Moon, and Planets 94 (3-4), pp. 245-266. ISSN 0167-9295.


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    I will argue that an ambitious programme of human space exploration, involving a return to the Moon, and eventually human missions to Mars, will add greatly to human knowledge. Gathering such knowledge is the primary aim of science, but science's compart-mentalisation into isolated academic disciplines tends to obscure the overall strength of the scientific case. Any consideration of the scientific arguments for human space exploration must therefore take a holistic view, and integrate the potential benefits over the entire spectrum of human knowledge. Moreover, science is only one thread in a much larger overall case for human space exploration. Other threads include economic, industrial, educational, geopolitical and cultural benefits. Any responsibly formulated public space policy must weigh all of these factors before deciding whether or not an investment in human space activities is scientifically and socially desirable.


    Item Type: Article
    Additional Information: The original publication is available at
    Keyword(s) / Subject(s): Human spaceflight, space exploration, Moon, Mars, international cooperation in space
    School: Birkbeck Faculties and Schools > Faculty of Science > School of Natural Sciences
    Depositing User: Sandra Plummer
    Date Deposited: 03 Apr 2006
    Last Modified: 02 Aug 2023 16:46


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