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    Sexism experienced by consultant cardiologists in the United Kingdom

    Jaijee, S.K. and Kamau-Mitchell, Caroline and Mikhail, G.W. and Hendry, C. (2021) Sexism experienced by consultant cardiologists in the United Kingdom. Heart , ISSN 1355-6037.

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    Objectives – The aim was to compare the frequency with which male and female cardiologists experience sexism, and to explore types of sexism experienced in cardiology. Methods – A validated questionnaire measuring experiences of sexism and sexual harassment was distributed online to 890 UK consultant cardiologists between March and May 2018. Chi squared tests and pairwise comparisons with a Bonferroni correction for multiple analyses compared the experiences of male and female cardiologists. Results – 174 cardiologists completed the survey (24% female; 76% male). The survey showed that 61.9% of female cardiologists have experienced discrimination of any kind, mostly related to gender and parenting, compared to 19.7% of male cardiologists. 35·7% of female cardiologists experienced unwanted sexual comments, attention or advances from a superior or colleagues, compared to 6.1% of male cardiologists. Sexual harassment affected the professional confidence of female cardiologists more than it affected the confidence of male cardiologists (42·9% vs. 3·0%), including confidence with colleagues (38% vs. 10·6%) and patients (23·9% vs. 4·6%). 33.3% of female cardiologists felt that sexism hampered opportunities for professional advancement compared to 2.3% of male cardiologists. Conclusion – Female cardiologists in the UK experience more sexism and sexual harassment than male cardiologists. Sexism impacts the career progression and professional confidence of female cardiologists more, including their confidence when working with patients and colleagues. Future research is urgently needed to test interventions against sexism in cardiology, and to protect the welfare of female cardiologists at work.


    Item Type: Article
    Keyword(s) / Subject(s): sexism, sexual harassment, cardiology, cardiologists, medicine, physicians, consultants, medical doctors, senior medical doctors, NHS, National Health Service, equality, diversity, prejudice, discrimination, parents, parental leave, family work conflict, job satisfaction, careers, patients, decision-making, clinical practice, medical training, women, men, medical careers, medical education
    School: School of Business, Economics & Informatics > Organizational Psychology
    Research Centres and Institutes: Medical Humanities, Centre for
    Depositing User: Caroline Kamau
    Date Deposited: 31 Mar 2021 14:53
    Last Modified: 20 Jun 2021 22:43

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