BIROn - Birkbeck Institutional Research Online

    Barriers to Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnosis for young women and girls: a systematic review

    Lockwood Estrin, Georgia and Milner, V. and Spain, D. and Happé, F. and Colvert, E. (2020) Barriers to Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnosis for young women and girls: a systematic review. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders , ISSN 2195-7177.

    45388.pdf - Published Version of Record
    Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

    Download (596kB) | Preview


    There is increased recognition that women and girls with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are underserved by the clinical criteria and processes required to receive a diagnosis. This mixed-methods systematic review aimed to identify key barriers to obtaining an ASD diagnosis in girls and young women under 21 years. Six themes were identified that focused on perceived gendered symptoms, namely behavioural problems, social and communication abilities, language, relationships, additional diagnoses/ difficulties and restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests. Five themes were identified as (parental) perceived barriers to diagnosis, namely compensatory behaviours, parental concerns, others’ perceptions, lack of information/resources and clinician bias. This review highlights the importance of enhancing widespread understanding and recognition of ASD presentation in females across development. PROSPERO Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (ID 2018 CRD42018087235).


    Item Type: Article
    Keyword(s) / Subject(s): Autism, Diagnosis, Female, Gender differences, Barriers
    School: Birkbeck Faculties and Schools > Faculty of Science > School of Psychological Sciences
    Research Centres and Institutes: Brain and Cognitive Development, Centre for (CBCD)
    Depositing User: Administrator
    Date Deposited: 09 Aug 2021 10:13
    Last Modified: 02 Aug 2023 18:11


    Activity Overview
    6 month trend
    6 month trend

    Additional statistics are available via IRStats2.

    Archive Staff Only (login required)

    Edit/View Item Edit/View Item