BIROn - Birkbeck Institutional Research Online

    Loot boxes in Spanish adolescents and young adults: relationship with internet gaming disorder and online gambling disorder

    Pontes, Halley (2022) Loot boxes in Spanish adolescents and young adults: relationship with internet gaming disorder and online gambling disorder. Computers in Human Behavior 126 (107012), ISSN 0747-5632.

    1-s2.0-S0747563221003356-main.pdf - Published Version of Record
    Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

    Download (514kB) | Preview


    In recent years, the video game industry has introduced the possibility of buying virtual random goods (e.g., loot boxes) in electronic games using money through microtransactions, which are becoming more widespread and potentially akin to gambling. Although previous research has linked loot boxes with problematic gaming and gambling behaviors, there are very few studies that relate them to the clinical indicators of these problems. The overall goal of this study is to ascertain the prevalence of loot box purchasing behavior and its association with Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) and Online Gambling Disorder (OGD). A secondary objective is to develop and analyze the psychometric properties of the Problematic Use of Loot Boxes Questionnaire (PU-LB). A cross-sectional study was conducted among 6633 participants (4236 males, 63.9%, and 4123 minors, 62.2%) with an average age of 16.73 ± 3.40 in a range of 11–30 years. The Spanish versions of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form (IGDS9-SF) and the Online Gambling Disorder Questionnaire (OGD-Q) were used. A total of 2013 (30.4%) participants reported purchasing a loot box in the last 12 months (28.9% among minors). A person who had purchased a loot box in the last 12 months had a prevalence rate (PR) of 3.66 [95% CI 2.66, 5.05] of presenting an IGD, and a PR = 4.85 [IC 95% 2.58, 9.12] of presenting an OGD. The PU-LB exhibited adequate reliability and validity indicators and was positively and significantly related to loot box expenditure, IGDS9-SF, and OGD-Q scores. The results are further discussed, and practical implications and future lines of research proposed.


    Item Type: Article
    Keyword(s) / Subject(s): Loot boxes, Gaming, IGD, Gambling, Prevalence
    School: Birkbeck Faculties and Schools > Faculty of Science > School of Psychological Sciences
    Depositing User: Halley Pontes
    Date Deposited: 14 Oct 2021 12:29
    Last Modified: 07 Aug 2023 16:19


    Activity Overview
    6 month trend
    6 month trend

    Additional statistics are available via IRStats2.

    Archive Staff Only (login required)

    Edit/View Item Edit/View Item