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    Fairly assessing unfairness: an exploration of gender disparities in informal entrepreneurship among academics in business schools

    Halilem, N. and De Silva, Muthu and Amara, N. (2022) Fairly assessing unfairness: an exploration of gender disparities in informal entrepreneurship among academics in business schools. Technological Forecasting & Social Change 174 , p. 121295. ISSN 0040-1625.

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    Assessing gender disparities in science commercialisation has been in the centre of the unresolved debates on the inadequacies of the methods used to compare female and male academics. Drawing from the literature on non–IP-based academic entrepreneurship and gender disparities in science, this study used the “pair-matched” technique to isolate 406 female and male academics in business schools (203 of each gender from a sample of 729 academics) who share common characteristics regarding academic position, subdisciplinary affiliation, and experience. The study confirms that a comparison of female and noncomparable male academics could lead to an unfair judgement of female academics’ performance. However, the results show that even compared to comparable men, women are less involved in remunerated consultations, generate a smaller proportion of their revenue from consultations and are less engaged in the creation of consultancy companies. In addition, the study allows us to quantify a leaky pipeline of both genders involved in informal academic entrepreneurship and to identify four paths, from progressive to nonprogressive. Most female academics follow a progressive entrepreneurial path but often struggle to move from nonremunerated to remunerated entrepreneurial engagements. The study concludes with implications for university administrators on knowledge transfer and gender inequality.


    Item Type: Article
    Keyword(s) / Subject(s): Academic Entrepreneurship, Gender disparities in Science, informal entrepreneurship, Pair matched method
    School: Birkbeck Faculties and Schools > Faculty of Business and Law > Birkbeck Business School
    Depositing User: Administrator
    Date Deposited: 20 Oct 2021 12:04
    Last Modified: 02 Aug 2023 18:13


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