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    Science and sanctions: lessons learned from twelve years of collaboration with the DPRK (North Korea)

    Hammond, James O.S. (2023) Science and sanctions: lessons learned from twelve years of collaboration with the DPRK (North Korea). Science & Diplomacy , ISSN 2167-8626.

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    The use of international sanctions has increased dramatically since the end of the second World War (Figure 1) and these have become more complex due to their multinational nature when implemented through the United Nations or European Union. However, over this same period, science has become more international, with multinational collaborations becoming the norm. This apparent paradox of simultaneously restricting and encouraging international collaboration creates many challenges for scientists and gives rise to the following questions: How do international sanctions affect scientific collaboration? What are the most effective avenues to maintain scientific collaboration during times of geopolitical strain? This paper investigates the unintended impacts of sanctions on scientific collaboration based primarily on the author’s experiences of collaborative research at a time of sanction development and implementation in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK, the formal name for North Korea).


    Item Type: Article
    School: Birkbeck Faculties and Schools > Faculty of Science > School of Natural Sciences
    Depositing User: James Hammond
    Date Deposited: 20 Nov 2023 14:32
    Last Modified: 20 Nov 2023 21:44


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