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    Compositional variations in shield-stage volcanism in Fogo, Cape Verde islands

    Rolfe-Betts, Brendon and Day, Simon J. and Downes, Hilary and Millar, I. and Palubicki, Kris (2024) Compositional variations in shield-stage volcanism in Fogo, Cape Verde islands. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 446 (107996), ISSN 0377-0273.

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    The intraplate oceanic island of Fogo (Cape Verde islands) is in the shield-stage of its evolution. It experienced a major lateral collapse ca. 70 ka ago, after which a sequence of lavas about 2 km thick infilled the collapse scar, with eruptions continuing to the present day. Nearly 100 lavas from before and after the collapse have been sampled and analysed for bulk rock compositions. These lavas have been divided into five Formations (2 pre- collapse and 3 post-collapse), using stratigraphic principles. There is little difference in the major and trace element compositions of pre- and post-collapse lavas, and the main process that gives rise to their diversity is fractional crystallization of observed mineral phases. Pre-collapse lavas show a narrower range of bulk compositions than the post-collapse lavas, but this may be because the sampling strategy avoided these more altered and poorly exposed lavas. A group of high-P2O5 lavas, erupted both before and after the collapse, may have been extensively contaminated by local seamount-stage intrusive carbonatites. A subset of 30 samples was analysed for Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios. They show a plume component which has interacted with two contaminants: (1) an increase in 87Sr/86Sr and decrease in 143Nd/144Nd with decreasing MgO, which indicates varying amounts of assimilation of an enriched lithospheric component coupled to fractionation (AFC), and (2) contamination of the more fractionated magmas, without further fractionation, involving the suspected carbonatite contaminant which originates from a more isotopically depleted source. Overall trends of increasing 87Sr/86Sr, and slight decreases in 143Nd/144Nd and all radiogenic Pb isotope ratios, with decreasing age of eruption, indicate a general increase in the assimilated lithospheric component throughout shield-stage activity. However, there is no clear evidence of any change in isotope compositions across the period of the collapse. All Formations show similar wide and overlapping ranges of isotope compositions, regardless of the timescales represented by each Formation. This implies that much short-term variation in the magma sources was superimposed on the overall trend of increasing lithospheric assimilation.


    Item Type: Article
    Keyword(s) / Subject(s): volcano collapse, lava compositions, fractional crystallization, radiogenic isotopes, assimilation, carbonatites
    School: Birkbeck Faculties and Schools > Faculty of Science > School of Natural Sciences
    Depositing User: Administrator
    Date Deposited: 17 Jan 2024 14:09
    Last Modified: 14 Mar 2024 18:33


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